Earlier this year we talked about the changes we have made to make Cwtch Bindings Reproducible.
In this devlog we will talk about how the Cwtch UI are currently built, the changes we have made to Cwtch UI to make future distributions verifiable, and the next steps we will be taking to make all Cwtch builds reproducible.
This will be useful to anyone who is looking to reproduce Cwtch UI builds specifically, and to anyone who wants to start implementing reproducible builds in their own project.
Building the Cwtch UI
The official Cwtch UI project uses the FLutter framework. The Cwtch UI deliberately tracks the
All builds are conducted through the
flutter tool e.g.
flutter build. We inject two build flags as part of the official build
flutter build linux --dart-define BUILD_VER=`cat VERSION` --dart-define BUILD_DATE=`cat COMMIT_DATE`
These flags are defined to be identical to Cwtch Bindings.
VERSION is the latest git tag:
git describe --tags --abbrev=1 and
COMMIT_DATE is the date of the latest commit on the branch
echo `git log -1 --format=%cd --date=format:%G-%m-%d-%H-%M` > COMMIT_DATE
All Cwtch UI builds also depend on two external dependencies not managed directly by the flutter project: Tor (implicit as part of the fetchTor scripts) and libCwtch (defined in
LIBCWTCH-GO.version, and fetched via the fetch-libcwtch scripts).
The binaries are downloaded via their respective scripts prior to the build, and managed via a separate update process.
Changes we made for reproducible builds
For reproducible linux builds we had to modify the generated
linux/CMakeLists.txt file to include the following compiler and linker flags:
-fno-ident- suppresses compiler identifying information from compiled artifacts. Without this small changes in compiler versions will result in different binaries.
--hash-style=gnu- asserts a standard hashing scheme to use across all compiled artifacts. Without this compilers that have been compiled with different default schemes will produce different artifacts
--build-id=none- suppresses build id generation. Without this each compiled artifact will have a section of effectively randomized data.
We have also defined a new linker script that differs from the default by removing all
.comment sections from object files. We do this because the linking process links in non-project artifacts like
crtbeginS.o which, in most systems, us compiled with a
.comment section (the default linking script already removes the
Finally, following the guide at reproducible-builds.org we have defined standard metadata for the generated Tar archives to make them also reproducible.
Limitations and Next Steps
The above changes mean that official linux builds of the same commit will now result in identical artifacts.
The next step is to roll these changes into repliqate as we have done with our bindings builds.
However, because Repliqate is based on Debian images and our official UI builds are based on an Ubuntu distribution the resulting archives differ by a single instruction at the start of a few sections - introduced because Ubuntu compiles and provides C Runtime (CRT) artifacts (e.g.
crti.o with full branch protection enabled. On 64-bit systems this results in an
endcr64 instruction being inserted at the start of the
.fini sections, among others.
In order to allow people to fully repliqate Cwtch builds in an isolated environment like repliqate, as we do for Cwtch Bindings, it will be necessary to provide instructions for setting up a hardened image that can work the same way in repliqate.
Additionally, while our repliqate scripts pin several major dependencies like flutter and go, and the dependencies managed by these systems are locked to specific versions, there are still a few dependencies within the ecosystems that are not strictly pinned.
The major one is libc. Operating systems rarely make big changes to packaged libc versions for a specific distribution (typically because doing so in a non-breaking way would be a major undertaking).
However this does mean that Cwtch reproduciblility is implicitly tied to operating system practices - this is something we would like to begin decoupling ourselves from going forward.
Stay up to date!
We expect to make additional progress on this in the coming weeks and months. Subscribe to our RSS feed, Atom feed, or JSON feed to stay up to date, and get the latest on, all aspects of Cwtch development.
Help us go further!
If you want to see us move faster on some of these goals and are in a position to, please donate. If you happen to be at a company that wants to do more for the community and this aligns, please consider donating or sponsoring a developer.
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